Richard Huges-Jones

My name is Richard Hughes-Jones. I am a Coach and Consultant who works with entrepreneurs and high growth businesses. I'm also an Associate Lecturer at the London College of Fashion.

Coaching provides an opportunity for you to gather, reflect upon and challenge your own thoughts. Through the process you identify your own way forward. My blog provides an opportunity for me to do the same with my own thinking, whilst at the same time sharing with you any wisdom I've picked up along the way.

I previously gained over a decade's experience as a Deloitte management consultant and HM Treasury civil servant. My full profile is on LinkedIn and you can also find me on Twitter, Instagram and Facebook. I like to keep in touch via email which you can sign up for below.

Boyd: The Fighter Pilot Who Changed the Art of War

Author Robert Coram describes John Boyd as “first, last and always a fighter pilot – a loud talking, cigar-smoking, bigger-than-life fighter pilot”. But also as more than that: “he was that rarest of creatures – a thinking fighter pilot”.

To explain the scale of Boyd’s achievements in one post is hard, but I’ll attempt to do so here, and leave you largely to infer how the wisdom in this wonderful book translates into entrepreneurship. The book delivers a masterclass in the importance of maneuverability as it relates to military (and business) strategy, and demonstrates what one man, surrounded by a few devoted and loyal Acolytes, can do to change the world.

‘Aerial Attack Study’

In 1959, when he was just a young Captain, Boyd became the first man to codify the elusive and mysterious ways of air-to-air combat. He developed an wrote the ‘Aerial Attack Study’, a document that became official Air Force doctrine and the bible of air combat. Fighter aviation became no longer a bag of tricks to be passed down from one generation of pilots to another. For the first time, the high stakes game of aerial combat was documented, codified and illustrated.

“Within ten years, the ‘Aerial Attack Study’ became the manual for air forces around the world. It changed the way they flew and the way they fought. Forty years after it was written, even with the passage of the Vietnam War and the Gulf War, nothing substantial had been added to it. And it was written by a thirty three year old Captain who wasn’t happy with it. Boyd believed [the study] could be formulated another way, that there had to be a better method of articulating the contents, maybe even something beyond the maneuver-countermaneuver strategy, something that went even beyond the mathematical formulae to the core, the very essence, of combat flying”.

Energy-Maneuverability (E-M) Theory

Talking about the ‘Aerial Attack Study’, Boyd is quoted as saying “one day I’ll have a breakthrough on this”. And that’s exactly what he had. In 1961, when back at college for a degree in engineering, Boyd went off on a riff late one night when studying for an exam in thermodynamics about being a fighter pilot in Korea and what it was like to fly an F-86 down MiG alley. Suddenly what he had learned in thermodynamics meshed with all that he had learned as a fighter pilot and Boyd had the epiphany that became his Energy-Maneuverability (E-M) Theory. The theory, at its simplest, is a method to determine the specific energy rate of an aircraft.

“In the beginning the entire thrust of his theory had been to understand the full performance envelope of an American aircraft, with the goal of developing new tactics for aerial battles. Then he realised that if E-M could quantify the performance of American aircraft, it could – for the first time – do the same for ‘threat aircraft’, for the MiGs and Sukhois flown by the Soviets. Finally, if E-M could quantify aircraft performance, why couldn’t he back up the theory and use it to design fighter aircraft”.

Thanks to Boyd’s theory, pilots could now outwit their enemy based on a mathematical understanding of their planes capability and that of their enemy’s:

“In the past, when pilots thought of maneuvering, they thought strictly in terms of air speed. Good pilots intuitively understood energy, though they could not articulate it. In World War II, for instance, they knew never to get into a turning fight with a Japanese Zero; in Korea, never turn with a MiG. Now, thanks to E-M, they could look at a chart and know at what altitude they could best fight. They knew how many Gs they could pull at a given altitude and still maintain not airspeed but excess energy”.

The Father of the F-15 & F-16

The gospel of E-M theory was spreading fast but it was highly resisted by a military establishment gripped by the Eisenhower Doctrine and the Massive Retaliation approach to war. Bigger-Higher-Faster-Farther was the mantra for airplane design; a constantly airborne fleet with the ability to deliver ever-bigger nuclear bombs on targets across the globe.

“You gotta challenge all assumptions. If you don’t, what is doctrine on day one becomes dogma forvever”.

“Boyd’s was guided in his work by one simple principle: he wanted to give pilots a fighter that would outmaneuver any enemy. He knew it mush have a high thrust-to-weight ratio if it were to have neck-snapping acceleration. And he knew it had to have lots of wing in order to maneuver quickly into the firing envelope. It had to have the energy to disengage, go for seperation, then come back into the fight with an advantage. It had to have the fuel to penetrate deep into enemy territory and sustain a prolonged fight”.

But all these criteria were vague. The closest Boyd came to defining a specific technical solution was when he said the aircraft should pull enough Gs at 30,000 feet to “roll down your goddamn socks” and that it should be so maneuverable that it could “fly up its own asshole”!

Through the 1960s Boyd and his ‘Fighter Mafia’ set to work within the Pentagon to make this fighter plane a reality, with the first F15 flying in 1972. The full story of this internal battle over bureaucracy is told in the book, but Boyd and his select team’s relentless pursuit of the perfect fighter and “knowledge gained from E-M made the F-15 and [later] F-16 the finest aircraft of their type in the world. Boyd is acknowledged as the father of those two aircraft”.

The OODA Loop

Boyd retired form the Air Force in 1975, having reached the rank of Colonel. His abrasive style and anti-establishment attitude meant that he was never promoted to General, despite his contributions.

“Then he went into a self-imposed exile and immersed himself in a daunting study of philosophy, the theory of science, military history, psychology, and a dozen other seemingly unrelated disciplines. He had evolved form being a warrior to a warrior-engineer, and now was about to move into the rarefied atmosphere of the pure intellectual. He synthesized all that he studied into all that he knew about aerial combat [and] expanded it to include all forms of conflict”

He wrote ‘Destruction and Creation’, an extraordinary and little known thesis on creativity and reacting to changing environments. He then applied this “to an operational issue – that is, a better and more thorough definition of ‘maneuverability'”.

“Boyd went back to his beginnings… to Korea, where the F-86 achieved such a stunning kill ratio against the MiG-15, a superior aircraft in energy-maneuverability terms. He used additional examples; Germany’s blitzkreig attack against France in 1940 and the Israelis’ lightning-fast raid at Entebbe Airport to free hostages seized by Uganda. In both instances the ability to transition quickly from one maneuver to another was a crucial factor in the victory. Thinking about operating at a quicker tempo – not just moving faster – than the adversary was a new concept in waging war. Generating a rapidly changing environment – that is engaging in activity that is so quick it is disorientating to the enemy – inhibits the adversary’s ability to adapt and causes confusion and disorder that, in turn, causes an adversary to overreact or underreact. Boyd closed the briefing by saying the message is that whoever can handle the quickest rate of change is the one who survives“.

Boyd’s studies continued. Four areas drew most of his attention: general theories of war, the blitzkreig, guerilla warfare, and the use of deception by great commanders. He studied Sun Tzu (400 B.C.), Alexander the Great (300 B.C.), Hannibal (200 B.C.), Belisarius (500 A.D.) Gengis Khan (1200 A.D.), Tamerlane (1400 A.D.), then Napoleon and Von Clausewitz and on through World War I and World War II.

Boyd devised the Oberve-Orient-Decide-Act cycle, or OODA Loop, a decision making framework that can, according to Coram:

“Be vicious, a terribly destructive force, virtually unstoppable in causing panic and confusion and – Boyd’s phrase is best – “‘unravel the competition’. This is true whether the Loop is applied to combat, in competitive business practices, in sports or in personal relationships. The most amazing aspect of the OODA Loop is that the losing side rarely understands what happened”.

 

Boyd paid particularly close attention to German tactics. Words such as Schwerpunkt and Fingerspitzengefuhl became everyday expressions. Schwerpunkt means the main focus of effort. On a deeper reading it is the underlying goal, the glue that holds together various units. Fingerspitzengefuhl means a fingertip feel and applies to a leader’s instinctive and intuitive sense of what’s going on and what is needed in a battle or conflict. Boyd considered that the blitzkreig is far more than the lightning thrusts that most people think of when they hear the term; rather it was all about high operational tempo and the rapid exploitation of an opportunity. The lessons for business strategy and leadership are so rich:

“In a blitzkreig situation, the commander is able to maintain a high operational tempo and rapidly exploit opportunity because he makes sure his subordinates know his intent, his Schwerpunkt. They are not micromanaged; instead they are given “mission orders”. This means that they understand their commander’s overall intent and they know their job is to do whatever is necessary to fulfill that intent. The subordinate and the commander share a common outlook. They trust each other, and this trust is the glue that holds the apparently formless effort together. Trust emphasises implicit over explicit communications. Trust is the unifying concept. This gives the subordinate greater freedom of action”.

Patterns of Conflict

At the end of the 1970s, the unnecessary complexity of major weapons systems meant that the US defence spending was spiraling out of control. The Army, battered by the Vietnam War, was also under enormous pressure to change from its ancient doctrine of attrition warfare. The new Army field manual still placed heavy emphasis on centuries-old ideas of firepower and orderly frontal assaults. The Army continued to rely on the idea that whoever has the biggest guns and the most soldiers will win.

Boyd, and his Acolytes, were playing central roles in government and the Pentagon, as part of the Reform movement, to bring about change.

But it was in the Marines where Boyd found a home for his final masterpiece. The Marines still taught the concept of advancing on the line, just as they had done in World War I and still in Vietnam, to disastrous effect. Developed out of his work on the OODA Loop, Boyd delivered his Patterns of Conflict brief to the Marine Corps Amphibious Warfare School (AWS) in 1980 and heralded in a new style of maneuver warfare, still enshrined in current Marine doctrine.

In a final twist, Boyd would become close to then US Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney, after the outbreak of the 1990 Gulf War. Though this was not known about until books were written afterwards, Cheney generally opposed General Norman Schwarzkopf’s initial war plan. Schwarzkopf was proposing a head-to-head assault against the main strength of the Iraqi forces, the classic mindset of the Army commanders imbued with the theory of attrition warfare.

The war plan was revised and a left hook envelopment proposed. Although ridiculed, it has, according to Coram “become an article of faith that Cheney developed his own plan for fighting the Gulf War. He had had enough one-on-one sessions with Boyd to give him the knowledge and self-confidence to second-guess even a head strong four star General such as Norman Schwarzkopf”. Cheney says that Boyd was “clearly a factor in my thinking”, though he minimises his role in changing Schwarzkopf’s initial plan.

As transpired, the Marines would feint an amphibious assault while the Army would make a wide sweep through the western desert and then swing north to cut off the Iraqi Army. It worked to devastating effect.

“Everything successful about the Gulf War is a direct reflection of Boyd’s ‘Patterns of Conflict’ – multiple thrusts and deception operations that created ambiguity and caused the enemy to surrender by the thousands. America (and the coalition forces) won without resorting to a prolonged ground war. America not only picked when and where it would fight, but also when and where it would not fight. Coalition forces operated at a much higher tempo than the enemy. The resulting crises happened so fast that opposing forces could not keep pace with them. The one hundred hour ground war blitz against Iraq is a splendid example of maneuver warfare, the conventional and the unconventional, all done so quickly the enemy was disorientated and collapsed from within”.

Remembering Boyd

Colonel John Boyd died from colon cancer in 1997; “he was one of the most important unknown men of his time”. He was creative genius and deep strategic thinker.

Boyd’s work proves that maneuverability provides the basis for superior performance. A business is not a fighter plane, but the idea that there may be some way to codify its strategic capabilities, to analyse the competition and design for success is an interesting one. And I see deep analogies between the concept of maneuverability versus traditional attrition in the field of contemporary business and entrepreneurship, as agile technology-enabled businesses take on their corporate counterparts. Boyd also embodies the spirit of the entrepreneur:

“Boyd and the small group of people working with him had an impact on the Defense Department disproportional to their numbers. And that is the essence of Boyd’s story. Like any good story it has a moral, one consistent with other powerful biographies. The moral is that, one by one, individuals committed to an idea provide the positive, constructive forces of history. Read this book. Examine its practical evidence against your ideas about what one person can do to change the world”.

Maj. Chris Yunker, Marine Corps Gazette

 You should definitely read this book! You can buy it here  

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Daniel Kahneman on Entrepreneurship

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If asked to name one book that has most changed my life, my answer is always Thinking Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman. It is the book that I reached for in the darkest depths of treatment for cancer, as I searched for rational answers to very complicated questions. It’s the book that kickstarted an incredible learning journey. Thinking Fast and Slow is a book about biases of intuition. The human brain works very well most of the time and our judgments are sound. However, it is prone to engage in a number of fallacies and systematic errors that lead to flawed opinions and adverse decision making. We assume certain things automatically without having thought them through carefully. Kahneman calls these assumptions heuristics and he goes on to outline almost fifty of them in the book.

Continue reading

Nike Founder Phil Knight explains his Crazy Idea

phil-knight-memoir-shoe-dog, from scribner-thumb-autox750-16438I’m a sneakerhead. In English, that means that I collect trainers. I love the aesthetics of the shoes, but perhaps more so the dynamics of the collectibles market which Nike effectively created. Phil ‘Shoe Dog’ Knight’s book was therefore primed to be a great read and it didn’t disappoint. As the founder, former CEO and now Executive Chairman of Nike, he tells his story of taking the business from humble origins, through an IPO in 1980 and onto its current $30 billion market capitalisation. If you had invested $1,000 at IPO without reinvesting dividends, your investment would be worth $729,575 today, representing a CAGR of just over 20.7% (according to Investopedia and based on December 2015 share price). Continue reading

Yuval Harari explains the Capitalist Creed

51xwPegEzlL._SX333_BO1,204,203,200_Yuval Harari’s book Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind charts our origins from hunter gatherers 2.5 million years ago on to the rise of Homo Sapiens 200,000 years ago. He takes the reader through the Cognitive Revolution 70,000 years ago, the Agrarian Revolution 10,000 years ago, into the Scientific Revolution in the 1500s, the Industrial Revolution in the late 1700s and on to the present. Harari covers a lot of ground that includes a deep dive into capitalism: “an economic-led system based on private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit”. He explores how something that began as a theory about how the early economy of the modern age functioned, has grown into much more than an economic doctrine. His standpoint serves as a thought-provoking baseline for anyone that works to build and grow businesses. Continue reading

Cancer & Entrepreneurshit

On 13th February 2015 I was diagnosed with Stage 3 colorectal cancer. At the beginning of August this year my treatment was complete. After nearly two years of grappling with a life-threatening illness, whilst at the same time hanging on to the bones of a business that I had set up just eighteen months before diagnosis, it is time to embrace the new normal. This is my story about cancer and entrepreneurshit. Continue reading

Hacking startup CEO potential

Elon Musk 2.jpgI spend a lot of time with CEOs of startup and early-stage businesses and I’m clear just what a tough gig it is. He or she has the challenge of continuing to define the business model and develop all aspects of the business (and people), whilst at the same time honing their own leadership skills (and managing their personal life). Leading a rapidly scaling operation is one of the toughest roles in business.

Some may take to the role more naturally than others but no one is born a CEO. New skills must be learned and existing ones improved, all at great pace. The transition from founder to well rounded CEO is incredibly tough. As an early-stage CEO explained to me in a coaching session, there are top down pressures coming from investors to build the business fast and hit targets, and at the same time there are bottom up pressures from the team to develop the culture and find and integrate new hires effiently. It’s easy to very quickly feel squeezed. Continue reading

Effective mentors listen first and talk later

It was great to have the opportunity to give a short talk at the second Forward Partners meet up for the FP50 mentor network. Mentors were keen to know more about how to kick off a mentoring relationship with the founders of startup and early-stage businesses. I talked about the importance of listening and understanding, with some suggested questions that can be asked to open up the conversation.

I started with a quote from Sal Virani’s recently released book Mentor Impact. Based on over 200 mentor interviews and extensive personal experience of working with accelerator programmes across Europe, he launches the book with a quote from one of the best mentors he interviewed (also a founder who had been through an accelerator). That person’s advice to other mentors: Continue reading

Cancer & Entrepreneurship

Richard Hughes-JonesDisillusioned with the corporate world and mesmerised by a whole season living in my campervan in the French Alps, I decided it was time for another change. In September 2013 I resigned from Deloitte Consulting and set up my own business as an entrepreneur coach. After five months spent climbing and skiing consequential lines, my rationale was simple: entrepreneurship was going to push me hard and I might end up penniless, but I’d learn a lot and it couldn’t kill me. On that basis, and with some ideas about how I’d grow my business in mind, the decision was made. Just 18 months into my entrepreneurial journey I was told I had Stage 3 colorectal cancer. That most definitely could kill me and I was petrified.

I don’t want to use my illness to define me but it hit at a very specific time in my life. Given the craziness of the experience, it feels like a missed opportunity not to share it and raise awareness. I didn’t keep a diary, so this is an opportunity for memories and personal reflection. I have also recorded a Podcast with Jerry Colonna and the gang at Reboot, a coaching company that helps people to deal with the internal ups and downs of entrepreneurship.

This is my story of being an entrepreneur with cancer.

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Advice for Startup Advisors

CB Insights ran an amusing Tweetstorm that poked fun at their favorite startup advice cliches. The discipline of advice-giving is a contentious one in the startup ecosystem. Providing effective advice is quite a skill and there’s always scope for improvement. For mentors, coaches and board members who deliver advice, and as Founders and CEOs on the receiving end, I’ve collated some of the best resources that I’ve come across to help us go a little deeper in thinking about this challenge. Continue reading

Startups and Antifragility

Nassim Taleb AntifragileNassim Taleb is the author of three highly influential books and quite a character. I’ve heard him be variously described as a former options trader, a psychologist, philosopher and flaneur, whatever the hell one of those is (I’m even writing this post in his style now). I’m reading his third book Antifragile: Things that Gain from Disorder at the moment, so having the chance to hear him talk on the subject of antifragility last week at the Bank of England was exciting.

Drawing strong similarities with nature throughout the book, Taleb explains antifragility thus:

“Some things benefit from shocks, they thrive and grow when exposed to volatility, randomness, disorder, and stressors and love adventure, risk and uncertainty. Yet, in spite of the ubiquity of the phenomenon, there is no word for the exact opposite of fragile. Let us call it antifragile. Antifragility is beyond resilience or robustness. The resilient resists shocks and stays the same; the antifragile gets better”.

His thinking has two important connotations for entrepreneurs and startups, at the macro and micro level. Continue reading

Calling BS on the Startup Cockroach

The startup world loves a buzzword and now we have a new one. Whilst I understand the sentiment behind it, I’m not sure it’s particularly helpful. At first, recent posts by Caterina Fake and Adam Draper about the Cockroach caught my positive attention, but on reflection I’m perplexed. A Cockroach is supposedly the name given to startup that makes it through current economic challenges. I believe the origin of the term lies within a Paul Graham post written in October 2008. about why to start a startup in a bad economy. Since then we’ve moved on to the Unicorn phenomenon.  Mark Suster has written about why he Fucking Hates Unicorns and now I’m going to follow in his giant shadow and say that I’m not a huge fan of the Cockroach. Continue reading

My favourite 10 resources for fashion technology startups

Wearable-technology-1260x840I often spend short bursts of time with startups who are still in the process of refining and validating their business model. In the last few months I’ve been doing just that with a wide range of hybrid fashion and technology businesses. I’ve been helping 9 great fashion technology startups that the Centre for Fashion Enterprise are supporting as part of their Front Row Fashion Technology programme. I’ve also spent time with the London College of Fashion’s MA Fashion Entrepreneurship & Innovation students, helping them develop their business ideas.

In can be hard sometimes to add deep insight during shorter sessions, so I often find myself directing students and founders to excellent articles and resources that I’ve stumbled across instead. Here are my favourite short-read resources for fashion technology startups that I found myself directing them to. Continue reading

Do one thing really well

WIRED-UK-June-2015 croppedIf you picked up the June edition of Wired magazine you’ll have found an excellent article entitled “41 lessons from Uber’s success”. Commentators include Clayton Christensen and Richard Branson, but it’s the point made by Josh Elman from Greylock Partners that really hits home. Reflecting on Uber, his advice is to: “Do one thing really well – then figure out what the second leap is”

Josh notes that, historically, the most successful companies do this. He cites Facebook’s beginnings as a private social network at colleges, before the company realised that the news feed could help propel the site into a massive multi-billion-user, multi-billion-dollar company. Uber, he says, was the same thing: Continue reading

In defence of consultants

Sam Altman is the President of Y-Combinator, an American seed fund with investments in over 840 companies including Dropbox, Airbnb, Stripe, Reddit, Zenefits, Instacart and Weebly.

Sam sent a Tweet out the other week expressing the view that consultants get paid the most money whilst delivering the least value. Sam is of course entitled to his perspective but I’m not comfortable with it. Continue reading

What is the definition of focus?

An inspiring idea and early validation of your business model are just the start of the entrepreneurial journey. When it comes to scaling, there are a thousand and one things that you could do, but you must focus on the one hundred and one things that you can actually do with limited available cash, resources and time. In Tren Griffin’s blog A Dozen Things I’ve Learned from Steve Jobs about Business, he references one of my favourite quotes from the great man, and a second that I’ve not heard before.

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10 of the best posts about startup Boards

Startup Boards can  be a contentious subject. Do you even need a Board in the early stages? When the time comes to introduce more effective governance arrangements, how do you go about attracting the right Board members and developing a high-performance Board culture? There’s no magic wand that you can wave at your governance challenges, and you will find lots of different answers to the same governance questions.

Here’s my list of 10 articles on the subject of startup Boards that I’d really recommend reading. Continue reading

Why you should always begin with the end in mind

7habitsI picked up my copy of The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen Covey the other day. I remembered that one of Covey’s principles was to begin with the end in mind and I’ve been doing some detailed thinking recently about what my own end is, so to speak. It struck me that there’s some useful lessons in the book about how to grow a business in 2015.

Covey says that beginning with the end in mind is based on the principle that all things are created twice. First a mental creation, then a physical creation. He uses the example of building a house: “you create it in every detail before you ever hammer the first nail in place” he says. Continue reading

Governance for startups: how to build and manage a Board

shutterstock_136036394 (2) Black and WhiteAny startup that has successfully raised follow on funding (angel and beyond) is going to find itself with external investors to keep happy and to do this effectively requires some form of governance structure to be put in place. Achieving this is not actually that complicated but if you’ve never set up a startup Board before, or put any kind of governance structure in place, then it probably feels like a daunting task. Continue reading

Risk management for scaling startups (and how to do it)

Philippe-Petit-MAN-ON-WIREI ran a business planning workshop the other month with a group of early-stage businesses, all high flying brands with six figure revenues. I asked the group a simple question: “who here identifies, understands and manages risk within their business?” I was met with laughter. The answer was of course, no one. Startups and early-stage businesses don’t really do risk management. But managing risk within a business is essential because, as the saying goes, “shit happens”.

Here are a few common themes that I have observed about the consideration of risk in startups and early-stage businesses. Continue reading

ANOTHER post about what’s WRONG with The Lean Startup

This post also appears on Medium.

Lean Startup CollageThe Lean Startup, by Eric Ries, was first published in 2011 and has since become the bible for startup entrepreneurs around the world. But recently I’ve read a good number of articles that question The Lean Startup. Criticising the lean startup approach is misled though. Why? Because that is all it is, an approach, albeit a very good one. The Lean Startup is not a prescribed formula that guarantees business success. Sadly, “management is complicated”, something that Eric Ries makes very clear in this video where he discusses how the principles and processes explained in The Lean Startup can be used to gain competitive advantage. Continue reading

Business lessons from David Bowie

DavidBowieDid you manage to make it to the acclaimed ‘David Bowie is’ exhibition at the Victoria & Albert Museum in London? Bowie is an incredible talent, combining undeniable song writing ability with outstanding creative flair. He is a true innovator, whose fame has real momentum through constant reinvention. Whilst the days of the Thin White Duke, Ziggy Stardust or Aladdin Sane may be over, Bowie is arguably as well known now as he has ever been.

Whilst exploring the exhibition my mind turned to thinking about what business might be able to learn from him. In a world where pop stars increasingly come and go, David Bowie’s (talent based) fame has endured. This post takes a look at why, and what lessons business can learn. Continue reading

Why is Sir Dave Brailsford such a master of strategy?

98101275_cycling_323801cSir Dave Brailsford, Performance Director of British Cycling and principal for Team Sky, understands what real strategy is, how to formulate it and how to execute it. His strategic approach has helped British riders achieve a record haul of Olympic medals at three successive Olympic Games, produced a World Champion in Mark Cavendish and two successive Tour de France winners in Sir Bradley Wiggins and now Chris Froome. Continue reading